End of the Roman Empire: The Goths Invade

Explore some of the reasons that caused the Roman Empire to fall apart in the 4th and 5th Centuries A.D. There wasn't one simple reason, but instead a combination of factors.

In the 5th century A.D., the Roman Empire fell apart. There were two main factors that led to the downfall of the world's mightiest empire: corruption and weakness within the empire, and invasions from several barbarian tribes. In class we looked at the Goths, a tribe from Eastern Europe that began migrating into the Balkan area of what is today Bulgaria, Romania, and the former Yugoslavia.

Some key points of discussion:
The Goths sack the city of Rome in 410 A.D.The Emperor Valens was killed in a losing battle against the Goths in 378 A.D.The Roman Empire adopts Christianity as the official religion The Goths covert to Christianity under their chief Fritigern The Romans treat the Goths very harshly as they enter the Empire

Rome Unit: Essential Questions

1. How did the location, geography, and climate of Rome affect the development of civilization there?

The location of Rome influenced civilization there because Rome was in the center of Italy so domination of the entire peninsula was easy. Rome was in the center of the Mediterranean Sea so they could control trade in the Mediterranean. 15 miles from the sea ~ Protection from piratesLocated on the Tiber River ~ Water for irrigationCentral Italy, center of the Mediterranean Sea ~ Great trading location The geography of Rome was that the city was surrounded by seven hills so it could be easily defended. Rome was on the Tiber River so the Romans could trade along it, but far enough inland so a naval attack would not be easy.

The climate of Rome was a warm Mediterranean climate with mild winters and hot, dry summers so a small amount of grain could be grown, but Egypt still produced the most grain in the Mediterranean. Like the Greeks, the Romans could grow grapes and olives for wine and…

Roman Emperors: Good, Bad, and Ugly

Once Augustus Caesar established the imperial form of government, Rome was led by four centuries of emperors. Some of those leaders were good, others were pretty awful. Some took power by force, others were the sons or family members of previous emperors, and still others were strong military generals that had the support of the army. All of the emperors in some way pretended that the republic still existed, even though they stacked the Senate with friends and allies, or bullied and threatened the Senators into doing what the emperor wanted.

Using one or several of the following sources, quickly research each Roman emperor on the list. Include their dates, and maybe 5 or 6 bullet points about each emperor's rule. Create a Quizlet about these Roman emperors. Pay attention to each leader's accomplishments, style, and how their reign began and ended.

Augustus CaesarClaudiusNeroVespasianTitusTrajanHadrianMarcus AureliusCommodusCaracallaDiocletianConstantineRomulus Augustulus

Here …

Julius and Augustus Caesar

Julius Caesar was a famous Roman general and dictator in the time of the late Republic (around 50 B.C.). His adopted son Octavian would become the first emperor of Rome. Both men came from an old noble family of patricians and possessed great wealth and power. Their rules marked the time when the Roman Republic became the Roman Empire.

While Julius Caesar was famously assassinated by a group of senators on the Ides of March (March 15th), 44 B.C. for wanting too much power, Octavian was renamed Augustus ("the Great One") by the Senate, and he ruled for more than 40 years.

Julius Caesar
(from BBC)

Caesar was a politician and general of the late Roman republic, who greatly extended the Roman empire before seizing power and making himself dictator of Rome, paving the way for the imperial system.

Julius Caesar was born in Rome on 12 or 13 July 100 BC into the prestigious Julian clan. His family were closely connected with the Marian faction in Roman politics. Caesar himself progress…

Life in Rome: Engineering an Empire

In the time of the ancient Roman Empire, huge building and engineering projects were undertaken by different emperors who wanted to make their mark. Meanwhile, the rich became even more wealthy as the poor struggled to survive, and the slaves continued to live difficult lives as someone else's property.

First, watch the segments of the video called Engineering an Empire: Rome. Especially focus on the segments about aqueducts, roads, the Colosseum, Hadrian's Wall, the Pantheon, and the Baths of Caracalla. Think about what each of these structures' purposes were, and if they are still in existence (even as ruins) today.

Now check out a couple more videos about the life of ancient Romans:

And finally, want to see some truly exciting Roman entertainment? Check out this chariot race scene from the old classic movie Ben Hur (1959)!

And as a bonus, check out this time-lapse video from the Melbourne Museum in Australia showing what it would have looked like to be in Pompeii on th…

Rome vs. Carthage: The Punic Wars

The Punic Wars were a series of three wars that Rome fought with the city of Carthage in North Africa between 264 B.C. and 149 B.C. Carthage was originally a colony of the ancient civilization of the Phoenicians. Defeating the Carthaginians meant that Rome was well on its way toward creating a vast Mediterranean empire.

The First Punic War
Roman Commander: Marcus Atilius Regulus
Carthaginian Commander: General Hamilcar
Why did the War Start? Romans and Carthaginians fought for control of the strategic island of Sicily
What Were the Results of the War? Rome wins in 241 B.C.E. and takes possession of Sicily

The Second Punic War
Roman Commander: Scipio Africanus
Carthaginian Commander: Hannibal
Why did the War Start? Carthage attacked a Roman town in Spain called Saguntum
What Were the Results of the War? Rome completely defeated Carthage taking all of its territory, ships, and money

The Third Punic War
Roman Commander: Scipio Aemilianus
Carthaginian Commander: Hasdrubal
Why did the War Start? In 149…

The Roman Republic

Please copy the following chart of the Roman Republic onto a blank page in your notebook or on Notability. Use two different colors, make it neat, and draw all lines with a ruler if you're using paper. Be sure to label all parts accurately. I will check these tomorrow and ask those who do a poor job to try again.

 Use the definitions of your vocabulary words to know the role of each government office.

1. Start by labeling the chart "The Ancient Roman Republic, 508 B.C.E. - 49 B.C.E." Underneath the title, write the definition for republic.
Republic: A system of government in which citizens elect leaders to make decisions 2. Now, make a key that includes one color for patricians and another for plebeians. In this chart, patricians are purple and plebeians are pink, but yours may be different colors if you want.
Patrician: A member of the upper class of ancient RomePlebeian: A member of the middle or lower classes of ancient Rome (mostly shopkeepers, artisans, merchants, so…

The Mysterious Etruscans

First, check out this Introduction from SMART HISTORY

Before Rome was anything more than a collection of Neolithic fishing villages on the banks of the Tiber River, the Etruscans established their civilization throughout central Italy. This mysterious culture showed signs of being from Eastern Europe or beyond, used an alphabet based upon those of the Phoenicians and Greeks, and traded with several Mediterranean kingdoms including Egypt.

The High Rock Media Center database has some great information:
The Etruscans originated in central Italy around 900 B.C. and were absorbed into the Roman Empire in the 80s B.C. During the first millennium B.C., they developed the earliest complex society in Italy. In common with other Mediterranean civilizations of their time, the Etruscans lived in city-states, had a specialized agricultural and craft economy, and exchanged goods and ideas with their neighbors. Distinctive to the Etruscans was their religion, social and political structure, a…

Greece and Rome: Cultural Diffusion

Cultural diffusion means the spreading of ideas from one culture to another.

Keep notes on the following information concerning the influence Greek culture had on the Romans.

How did the Greeks influence Roman culture in the following areas?

- The Romans worshipped Greek gods but gave them new names
- Examples: Zeus = Jupiter, Aphrodite = Venus

- Roman writers were inspired by Greek writers
- Virgil wrote the Aeneid, an epic poem about the end of the Trojan War and the hero Aeneas
- Virgil based the Aeneid on the Iliad and the Odyssey

- Romans adopted Greek forms such as temples with columns, pediment, and a rectangular floor plan
- The Romans also used the arch, which they learned from the Etruscans

- Wealthy Romans study Greek literature
- Romans often hired Greek teachers and tutors
- Greek was the language spoken by the upper class

How did the following practical skills of the Romans advance their society?

- Legal system of cour…

The Foundation of Rome

The Founding of Rome
The Founding of Rome is very much told through myth.
 Traces found by archaeologists of early settlements of the Palatine Hill date back to about 750 B.C.E. 
This ties in very closely to the established legend that Rome was founded in April of 753 B.C.E., which was traditionally celebrated in Rome with the festival of Parilia. 
Two founding legends exist - Romulus and Remus and Aeneas.
 Rather than contradict each other, the tale of Aeneas adds to that of Romulus and Remus.

Romulus and Remus
King Numitor of Alba Longa was overthrown by his younger brother Amulius. To do away with any further possible pretenders to his throne, Amulius murdered Numitor's sons and forced Numitor's daughter, Rhea Silvia, to become a vestal virgin. (Vestal virgins were priestesses to the goddess Vesta and were expected to never marry, under penalty of death). 
However Mars, the god of war, fell in love with Rhea Silvia and married her. As a result of this Rhea Silvia had twins, …

Ancient Rome: Vocabulary

Please click on any vocab word for more information! 
1. amphitheater:
a round arena where games, shows, or fights are held in the center

2. aqueduct:
a bridge-like structure used to carry water from a distant source

3. assassinate:
to kill someone for political reasons