Monday, June 9, 2014

MFA Field Trip Preview

This week, our cluster will be visiting the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. There, you will see one of the best Egyptian collections outside of Egypt, a huge Greek and Roman collection, and some of the oldest artifacts of human civilization. Here's a preview of selected artifacts that I would like you to notice when we're at the MFA.

If you want to preview even more, the MFA website has a tremendous online gallery, interactive tours, and a very detailed catalog of their immense collection. I highly recommend you take a look...

The first artifact is one of the most important artifacts in all of Egyptian art history. It is a statue of Prince Ankhhaf, who was the brother of one pharaoh and the son of another. He helped to build the great pyramid at Giza around 2500 B.C.E.


What the Museum won't tell you is that the Egyptian government would love to get its hands on this statue to bring it back to Cairo. The problem for them is that it was legally excavated by Harvard and the MFA about 100 years ago. Now the Egyptian government says it would like to "borrow" it. Yeah right!



Here's what the Museum does say about this artifact:

Bust of Prince Ankhhaf
 
Egyptian, Old Kingdom, Dynasty 4, reign of Khafra (Chephre, 2520–2494 B.C.
 
Findspot: Giza, Egypt
     Height: 50.48 cm (19 7/8 in.)
     Painted limestone
 
Classification: Sculpture
 
On view in the: Gardiner Martin Lane Gallery (Egyptian Old Kingdom Gallery)

In ancient Egypt, artists almost never created true portraits. This bust of Ankhhaf, therefore, breaks the rule. It is made of limestone covered with a thin layer of plaster, into which details have been modeled by the hand of a master. Rather than a stylized representation, the face is of an individual. From inscriptions in his tomb, we know that Ankhhaf was the son of a king, probably Sneferu, brother of another, Khufu, and that he served Khafre as vizier and overseer of works. In this last capacity, he may have overseen the building of the second pyramid and carving of the sphinx.



Ankhhaf's features are those of a mature man. His skull shows a receding hairline. His eyelids droop slightly over eyes originally painted white with brown pupils. Puffy pouches are rendered underneath. Diagonal furrows set off a stern mouth. Apparently, he once had a short beard made from a separate piece of plaster. It was lost in antiquity, as were his ears. His gaze is that of a commanding and willful man, someone who was accustomed to having his orders obeyed. It was the way he wanted to be remembered for eternity.



Ankhhaf's mastaba was the largest in the great Eastern Cemetery at Giza. His bust was installed in a mudbrick chapel attached to the east side of the tomb and oriented so that it faced the chapel's entryway. The chapel walls were covered in exquisitely modeled low relief. It has been suggested that Ankhhaf's arms were sculpted on the low pedestal on which he sat, thereby making him appear even more lifelike. Passersby left more than ninety models of food and drink for Ankhhaf to enjoy in the afterlife. 



Ankhhaf is unique, and by the terms of the Museum's contract with the Egyptian government, he should have gone to the Cairo Museum. However, he was awarded to Boston by the Antiquities Service in gratitude for the Harvard-Boston Expedition's painstaking work to excavate and restore objects from the tomb of Queen Hetepheres.

Museum of Fine Arts, Boston
Harvard University—Boston Museum of Fine Arts Expedition, 1927
Accession number: 27.442
Provenance/Ownership History: From Giza, tomb G 7510. 1925: excavated by the Harvard University-Boston Museum of Fine Arts Expedition; 1927: assigned to the MFA in the division of finds by the government of Egypt.
(Accession Date: July 7, 1927)


Akhenaten receiving the rays of Aten

One of the most interesting pharaohs ever to rule Egypt was named Amenhotep IV, who later renamed himself Akenaten. This pharaoh changed the Egyptian religion and the style of Egyptian art and even moved the capital city of the kingdom from Thebes to a brand new city he built called Amarna. For that reason, this time in history is called the "Amarna Period."

In the comments, can you describe any specific changes that Akhenaten put in place?



* Egyptian, New Kingdom, Dynasty 18, reign of Akhenaten, 1349–1336 B.C.

Dimensions
    Height x width x depth: 51 x 105.5 x 5.2 cm (20 1/16 x 41 9/16 x 2 1/16 in.)
 
Medium or Technique
    Limestone
 
Classification
    Architectural elements

Accession Number
    64.1944
On view
    Egypt: New Kingdom - 210
Although Akhenaten's religious reforms purged Egyptian art of many of its most familiar manifestations, the king remained fond of the sphinx and often had himself depicted as that fantastic creature - part man, part lion. In Old Kingdom times, the Great Sphinx at Giza probably stood for the king presenting offerings to the sun god, while in the Eighteenth Dynasty the mighty monument was reinterpreted as the sun god Horemakhet, or Horus in the Horizon. Its impeccable solar credentials therefore made the sphinx an appropriate image for Akhenaten at el-Amarna, the city he called Akhetaten, "Horizon of the Sun Disk."



This relief was one of a pair flanking a temple doorway. The sphinx on it rests on a plinth, suggesting that it represents a statue. A pair of such reliefs flanking the doorway of a small temple would have evoked the grand avenues of sphinxes that traditionally led up to the entrance pylons of larger Egyptian sanctuaries. Here the sphinx is equipped with human arms and hands to enable him to make offerings to his god, the sun disk, Aten, who appears at the upper left. He wears the uraeus of kingship while behind him (to the left) are two cartouches containing his lengthy official name. The sun's life-giving rays end in so many hands, some holding ankh-signs. Below are three offering stands. To the right, Akhenaten as sphinx raises one hand in adoration while in the other he holds a neb sign, a basket signifying lordship, holding Aten's cartouches. These same cartouches appear a third time in the upper right where they are joined with the cartouches of Akhenaten and Queen Nefertiti, who is thus present in name if not in image. The rest of the inscription describes the "great, living Aten" as "dwelling in the Sunshade temple [called] Creator of the Horizon [which is] in Akhetaten." The temple named here, yet to be located, must be the one for which this block was carved. 



Akhenaten's religious revolution was accompanied by a change in the way pharaoh was depicted, showing a marked departure from the idealized images favored by his predecessors. Even though the king's face has been sadly hacked away, one can still discern his characteristic slanted eyes, long nose, hollow cheeks, drooping lower lip, and pendulous chin.

Provenance: Probably from el-Amarna. By 1964: with Ernst E. Kofler, Lucerne, Switzerland; October 4, 1964: purchased by the MFA from Ernst E. Kofler. 

(Accession Date: October 14, 1964). Credit Line:
Egyptian Curator's Fund

The Giza Plateau
Students should check out the Giza Archives section of the MFA website. As you may know, the Museum and Harvard University teamed up in the early 1900s to conduct archaeological digs in the area of the Giza Plateau, the location of the Great Pyramids. The MFA was the only American museum allowed to dig there. As a result, the evidence gathered from these digs has been some of the most important information uncovered about Egyptian history.



The Giza Archives have the original documents, photos, and writings of the original archaeologists on the dig. Many of the artifacts in the MFA's Egyptian collection can be seen in these photos as they appeared in situ.

Check it out:


The MFA's Greek collection is one of the best in North America. The Museum has an especially large gallery of Greek pottery. We've talked a lot about the different gods, goddesses, and myths that made life in ancient Greece more fun and interesting.

The Greek Sphinx
Most people know the term "sphinx" to mean the more famous giant statue which guards the Great Pyramids of Giza, in Egypt. The Greeks, however, had their own version of a sphinx. The Greek sphinx had the body of a lioness, the wings of an eagle, and the head of a woman. She was famous for demanding the answer to a riddle, and for killing those who were incorrect in their answers. Unfortunately, the MFA's Greek sphinx is without its head, so you'll just have to imagine what she looked like.

A Greek Sphinx: What is the difference from an Egyptian Sphinx?
Upper part of a grave stele: seated sphinx (sphinx and capital)

Greek, Archaic Period, about 530 B.C.

Height: 141.7 cm (55 13/16 in.) 

Marble, either island (sphinx and plinth) or Pentelic (capital)
 
Classification: Sculpture
Catalogue: Sculpture in Stone (MFA), no. 017; Sculpture in Stone and 

Bronze (MFA), p. 106 (additional published references); Highlights: Classical Art (MFA), p. 159.
 
On view in the: Early Greek Gallery

Sphinx and plinth were carved in island marble separately from the Pentelic marble capital. This plinth was let into a socket at the top of the capital and secured in a bed of molten lead. There is a large socket on the underside of the capital, with a pour hole from the back side. The abacus and the base of the capital are flush with the volutes, and all surfaces have been smoothed, except the plinth of the sphinx, which shows point or punch marks.

The sphinx crouches to the right, with hind-quarters lifted and head turned to the front. The end of her curving tail rests on her right haunch. The hair, originally black, is shown as a mass descending to the shoulders and divided vertically and horizontally by grooves. The feathers of the wings are carved in relief and were painted alternately green, black, red, and blue. The feathers on the breast form a scale pattern, painted in alternate rows of red and green. The rib of each wing and the flat molding at the top of each foreleg are green.
The capital is of lyre design, consisting of two double volutes, with palmettes in all the interstices. It is open in the center and richly decorated with incised and painted designs. The front and ends of the base are enriched with a delicately carved guilloche. The abacus has four-pointed stars set on three-petaled palmettes, three in front and one on each end. The outer sides of the volutes are incised and painted with a large lotus and palmette pattern. Alternating red and black colors complement the form, carving and incision.
Sphinx and capital have been broken into a number of pieces and rejoined, with slight restorations at the joins. There is more restoration in the lower part of the capital than elsewhere, but this is to a great extent supplanted by an extra piece acquired nearly twenty years after the original purchase was first undertaken. The surfaces are very fresh. The fragments with the parts of the dedicatory inscription have the handsome golden yellow patina of the best Pentelic marble.
See: 40.724a-b for inscribed fragments.

See also Cls. Inv. 186.
Museum of Fine Arts, Boston
1931 and 1939 Purchase Funds, 1940
Accession number: 40.576
Provenance/Ownership History: By date unknown: with Brummer Gallery, Inc., 110 East 58th Street, New York; purchased by MFA from Brummer Gallery, Inc., October 10, 1940, for $ 65,000.00


The ancient Romans copied much of the Greek culture, art, and mythology and adopted it as their own.

This sarcophagus was made to bury the body of a wealthy Roman. The side is a huge and detailed sculpture showing the "triumph of Dionysus." The Greek god Dionysus represented wine and partying, among other things. One day the hero Hercules challenged the god to a drinking contest. Not a good idea.

Hercules lost the contest, the one time in his life he ever lost. If you look at the details, you'll see all kinds of crazy and exotic animals including elephants and giraffes. At the far right, some satyrs are helping Hercules to walk, since he's pretty shaky on his legs.

Roman Sarcophagus from about 220 A.D.

Sarcophagus with triumph of Dionysos
 
Roman, Imperial Period, about A.D. 215–225
 
Overall: 77.5 x 208cm (30 1/2 x 81 7/8in.)

Other (Body): 59cm (23 1/4in.)

Other (lid): 18.5cm (7 5/16in.)

Case (Rolling steel pedestal with wooden skirts/plex-bonnet): 77.5 x 228.6 x 76.5 cm (30 1/2 x 90 x 30 1/8 in.)


Marble, from the island of Proconnesus in the Sea of Marmara near Istanbul



Inscriptions: An inscription along the lower edge reads, "Marcus Vibius Agesilaus Junior made it (i.e. set up this monument?) for Marcus Liberalis, the son of Marcus, the Praetor, his tutor" or "who brought him up."

Classification: Sculpture
Catalogue: Sculpture in Stone (MFA), no. 244; Sculpture in Stone and Bronze (MFA), p. 113 (additional published references); Highlights: Classical Art (MFA), p. 108-109.
On view in the: Roman Gallery

The god of wine and dramatic festivals, in full choral attitude, steps into a biga drawn by two Indian elephants with fringed cloths on their backs. He is supported by his companion the satyr Ampelos and attended by the complete Dionysiac train of Sileni, pans, satyrs, maenads, and the exotic animals of his triumph in India.



The inscription reads :M~VIBIO~M~FIL~LIBERALI~PRAET~M~VIBIVS~AGESILAVS~IVNIOR~NVTRICIO~SUO~FEC ("Marcus Vibius Agesilaus junior made (it) for Marcus Vibius Liberalis, son of Marcus, the praetor, his foster-father" ).

The condition is, generally speaking, superb, with the small breaks, missing limbs, and absent attributes apparent from illustrations. The surfaces, particularly of the nude or seminude figures, retain their high polish. There are no restorations of the kind that ruin so many sarcophagi. The sections cracked or broken through have been carefully rejoined, and the missing pieces of the lid hardly detract from the visual sweep and rhythm of the triumphal procession. The three-volume corpus of Dionysiac sarcophagi reveals that very few of these monuments of Greek art in the Roman Empire have their original (or any) lids preserved in any form or condition.

Museum of Fine Arts, Boston
William Francis Warden Fund, 1972
Accession number: 1972.650
Provenance/Ownership History: By date unknown: collection of an international banker in northwest Europe; by 1972: with Miss Jeanette Brun, Dufourstrasse 119, Zurich 8008, Switzerland; purchased by MFA from Miss Jeanette Brun, June 7, 1972

Friday, June 6, 2014

70th Anniversary of D-Day

An aerial view of the invasion
Today is the 57th anniversary of the Allied invasion of Normandy during World War II. Thousands of American, British, and allied troops lost their lives in helping to turn the tide against the advance of Nazism. It was the largest amphibious invasion in history.

General Eisenhower speaks with the troops
Here are some resources if you are interested in learning more. 57 years after the D-Day landings, there are only a few remaining veterans who can tell their stories and so it is more important for young people to remember the sacrifices of soldiers who fought and died to defeat fascism and the evil regime of Hitler.


Websites:
The official U.S. Army D-Day site
PBS special "The American Experience"
The World War II Museum site



A map of the landings at Normandy

Troops approaching the beaches

Thursday, June 5, 2014

Barbarians: The Goths

In the 5th century A.D., the Roman Empire fell apart. There were two main factors that led to the downfall of the world's mightiest empire: corruption and weakness within the empire, and invasions from several barbarian tribes. In class we looked at the Goths, a tribe from Eastern Europe that began migrating into the Balkan area of what is today Bulgaria, Romania, and the former Yugoslavia.

Some key points of discussion:
  • The Goths sack the city of Rome in 410 A.D.
  • The Emperor Valens was killed in a losing battle against the Goths in 378 A.D.
  • The Roman Empire adopts Christianity as the official religion
  • The Goths covert to Christianity under their chief Fritigern
  • The Romans treat the Goths very harshly as they enter the Empire

Tuesday, June 3, 2014

Rome Essential Questions

1. How did the location, geography, and climate of Rome affect the development of civilization there?

The location of Rome influenced civilization there because Rome was in the center of Italy so domination of the entire peninsula was easy. Rome was in the center of the Mediterranean Sea so they could control trade in the Mediterranean.
  • 15 miles from the sea --> Protection from pirates
  • Located on the Tiber River --> Water for irrigation
  • Central Italy, center of the Med. Sea --> Great trading location
The geography of Rome was that the city was surrounded by seven hills so it could be easily defended. Rome was on the Tiber River so the Romans could trade along it, but far enough inland so a naval attack would not be easy.

The climate of Rome was a warm Mediterranean climate with mild winters and hot, dry summers so a small amount of grain could be grown, but Egypt still produced the most grain in the Mediterranean. Like the Greeks, the Romans could grow grapes and olives for wine and oil to trade.

2. How were the Romans influenced by Greek culture and ideas?

The Romans were influenced by Greek culture and ideas by using variations of Greek gods, and the Romans wore clothes that were similar to the Greeks. Wealthy Romans often spoke Greek, and their children were taught by Greek tutors. The Romans also took the idea that all cities should have some of the same buildings like an amphitheater and a forum. The Romans also used the idea that armies should be professional and well paid. The Romans also admired Greek art, architecture, and literature.

3. How was the Roman Republic founded and organized?

The myth of Rome's founding included the story of Romulus and Remus. The reality was that Rome began as a small fishing village which developed into a monarchy. Later, the Etruscans conquer the Romans and rule them. 
The Roman Republic was founded after one of the Etruscan kings was especially cruel and the Romans rebelled and threw the Etruscans out of Rome. The Romans did not want one person to take power again so they used a republic where the citizens from rich and poor classes elected leaders who made decisions for the benefit of both classes. There could be a dictator if there was an emergency, but after the emergency passed they went back to the republican system.

The main offices of the Republic included the consuls, senators, tribunes, and the citizens’ assembly.

Julius Caesar
4. Who was Julius Caesar and what effect did he have on the Roman Republic?

Julius Caesar was Roman general who conquered Gaul (France) for Rome. Julius Caesar thought that the republic wasn’t working and he thought that Rome needed a centralized government and that he should be in charge.

Julius Caesar had himself declared a dictator for life. Many Senators thought that Julius Caesar was going to get to much power and be like one of the Etruscan kings, so they assassinated him thinking that it would restore the Roman Republic but after a civil war Octavian Caesar became emperor of Rome. The Republic never came back.

Augustus Caesar
5. Who was Augustus Caesar and what were his major accomplishments?

Augustus Caesar was Julius Caesar’s nephew and adopted son. After Julius Caesar died there was a civil war. During the war Augustus (then called Octavian) defeated all his political rivals and had himself crowned “emperor.” Rome had grown during the civil war: Egypt was now entirely under Roman control.

A few of his accomplishments were that he built roads to connect the empire, and he had a fire department. He built Roman cities in conquered lands to spread Roman culture and change the barbarians into proper Roman citizens. There was a period of 200 years of peace begun by Augustus. Augustus rebuilt many temples, started a police force, and gave out food to the poor.


6. What were some of the successes and failures of the Roman Empire?

Some of the successes of the Roman Empire were they conquered the entire Mediterranean area and spread their culture around a lot of the known world. The Romans also built roads, aqueducts to carry water to cities, and used other people’s ideas to a much bigger purpose like using Etruscan arches and making the Coliseum. The Romans built the strongest army and greatest engineering masterpieces in ancient history.

Some of the failures of the Roman Empire were there were occasionally emperors who were mentally unstable and made very bad decisions for the Roman people. The Romans also persecuted people who didn’t worship Roman gods. There also was a very big difference between rich people and poor people, plus the Romans allowed slavery to exist. The Romans built an empire that became too vast to manage and eventually lost control over most of their territory.

The Roman Empire around A.D. 117 - The  territory colored orange was under Roman control.

7. How did the Roman Empire come to an end?

The Roman Empire ended when the borders got so long that armies couldn’t stop all the barbarians who wanted to invade Rome. Wave after wave of Gothic and Germanic tribes invaded Roman territory. Civil war also killed a lot of men who could fight the barbarians. Eventually barbarians got to the city of Rome itself and sacked it. Major rebellions broke out against Roman control in most of the foreign territories. Lastly, in 410 A.D. and again in 476 A.D., the Goths sacked the city of Rome itself.

Internally, the Roman Empire had tremendous money problems and eventually went broke. The government could no longer pay foreign soldiers to defend against attack. Bad leaders made the situation worse, and the empire broke apart.

8. What were some of the most important contributions of the Romans?

One of the most important contributions of the Romans was the republican form of government that we use today. We have a senate like the Romans and we elect our leaders.

Another contribution of the Romans was in the area of architectural engineering. We use arches now and columns in our government buildings.

We use the Roman alphabet and most of the words in our language come from Latin, as do all of the Romance languages (French, Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, etc.). 


Friday, May 30, 2014

Hannibal the Annihilator

In class we watched a movie from the History Channel that dramatizes the battle strategies of Hannibal, the chief of the Carthaginian army during the Second Punic War. It is done in the style of a graphic novel or the movie 300. I'm pretty sure the real Hannibal didn't look like a WWE wrestler, but he was a brilliant military leader.



1. Who was Hannibal?

     • What was his childhood like?

     • Who was his father?

     • How did he feel about Rome?

2. How did the First Punic War end?

3. How did the Second Punic War begin?

4. Describe the following:

     The Battle of Trebia

     The Battle of Lake Trasimene

     The Battle of Cannae

5. What was the Roman reaction to the invasion of Hannibal and the Carthaginians?

6. Who was Scipio Africanus?

7. Describe the Battle of Zama

8. How did the Second Punic War end?

Thursday, May 29, 2014

Engineering an Empire: Carthage

Wednesday, May 28, 2014

Punic Wars

On page 12 of your packet, take notes on the series of three wars that Rome fights with the city of Carthage in North Africa. Defeating the Carthaginians meant that Rome was well on its way toward creating a vast Mediterranean empire.

Hannibal crosses the Alps with a force of elephants during the Second Punic War
The First Punic War
Roman Commander: Marcus Atilius Regulus
Carthaginian Commander: General Hamilcar
Why did the War Start? Romans and Carthaginians fought for control of the strategic island of Sicily
What Were the Results of the War? Rome wins in 241 B.C.E. and takes possession of Sicily

The Second Punic War
Roman Commander: Scipio Africanus
Carthaginian Commander: Hannibal
Why did the War Start? Carthage attacked a Roman town in Spain called Saguntum
What Were the Results of the War? Rome completely defeated Carthage taking all of its territory, ships, and money

The Third Punic War
Roman Commander: Scipio Aemilianus
Carthaginian Commander: Hasdrubal
Why did the War Start? In 149 B.C.E. the Carthaginians rebel against the Romans
What Were the Results of the War? Rome puts down the Carthaginian rebellion and destroys Carthage, selling the people into slavery and pouring salt into the farmland


Over this period of time, the Romans begin to conquer vast amounts of land across the Mediterranean. Meanwhile, civil war and other trouble was brewing at home in the city of Rome...

What were five reasons that the Roman conquest of the Mediterranean went well?
1. Romans are highly motivated because they are fighting for love of the REPUBLIC
2. Rome makes conquered countries into new allies
3. Rome’s army is the most powerful in the world (highly professional and paid)
4. Romans valued military success and that leads to powerful political roles (like Julius Caesar)
5. The wealth of conquered lands flows into Rome


What were five major domestic problems of the Romans during that time?
1. Food shortage because Carthaginians destroyed farmland during Punic Wars
2. Farmers are forced off their land and their jobs are taken by slaves
3. Farmers move into the cities but even THERE slaves take their jobs
4. In the city of Rome, there is MASSIVE unemployment, overcrowding and all the ingredients for trouble
5. Civil unrest (slave rebellion, farmers rise up) leads to political unrest, brings dictatorship like Julius Caesar


Territory during the First Punic War

Tuesday, May 27, 2014

Engineering an Empire: Rome

In class we watched portions of the History Channel's Engineering and Empire on ancient Rome. Clearly the Romans were great builders and engineers. Some of their fantastic achievements include aqueducts, bridges, temples, and fortifications. The most famous example of Roman engineering is the Coliseum, the huge amphitheater where the Romans went to see gladiators fight to the death.

As you watch each video segment, ask yourself the following questions:
  • Why was this structure build? What was its purpose?
  • What were some of the engineering techniques the Romans used?
  • Is this structure still standing today? 

Friday, May 23, 2014

Happy Memorial Day 2014

This long weekend, many people will be grilling, traveling, spending time with family, or doing all kinds of fun outdoor activities. That's great!

But, I think it's important to take a minute to understand what Memorial Day is all about.

http://www.usmemorialday.org/

From the History Channel's website:
Memorial Day, which falls on the last Monday of May, commemorates the men and women who died while serving in the American military. Originally known as Decoration Day, it originated in the years following the Civil War and became an official federal holiday in 1971. Many Americans observe Memorial Day by visiting cemeteries or memorials, holding family gatherings and participating in parades. Unofficially, at least, it marks the beginning of summer.


Thursday, May 22, 2014

Foundation of Rome: Videos

Here's a cool video series on the earliest days of the Roman Republic, with special attention given to the myth of Romulus and Remus.


Monday, May 19, 2014

Ancient Roman Republic Chart

Please copy the following chart of the Roman Republic onto a blank page in your Rome packet. Use two different colors, make it neat, and draw all lines with a ruler. Be sure to label all parts accurately. I will check these tomorrow and ask those who do a poor job to try again.

 Use the definitions of your vocabulary words (packet pgs. 3-5) to know the role of each government office.

1. Start by labeling the chart "The Ancient Roman Republic, 508 B.C.E. - 49 B.C.E." Underneath the title, write the definition for republic.
  •   Republic: A system of government in which citizens elect leaders to make decisions
2. Now, make a key that includes one color for patricians and another for plebeians. In this chart, patricians are purple and plebeians are pink, but yours may be different colors if you want.
  • Patrician: A member of the small class of wealthy families in ancient Rome
  • Plebeian: The majority of middle class citizens in Rome who were mostly shopkeepers, artisans, and peasants
 3. Draw two consuls at the top of the chart, one being patrician and the other a plebeian.
  • Consul: One of the two executive leaders of the Roman Republic, advised by the Senate
4. Under the consuls and to the left, draw the Senate using three patrician and three plebeian symbols. There were approximately 300 Senators, with equal numbers of patricians and plebeians.
  • Senate: A council of elders from Rome’s leading families who vote on laws.
5. Under the consuls and to the right, draw the tribunes. There were ten tribunes and all of them were plebeians.
  • Tribunes: Elected leaders who represented the plebeians and had the power to veto any action of the Senate
6. Under the Senate and the tribunes, draw the citizens' assembly along the bottom of the chart. The ratio is 4 patricians and 15 plebeians. That means the plebeians outnumbered the patricians by a factor of almost 4 to 1.
  • Citizens’ Assembly: All citizens of the Roman Republic gathered together to elect the Senate and the tribunes (includes patricians and plebeians)

This chart displays the functioning of the Roman Republic (around 500 B.C.E. - 49 B.C.E.)


Watch the BrainPop video all about the Ancient Roman Republic by clicking here.

Tuesday, May 13, 2014

Notes: The Birth of Rome

On page 11 of your Rome packet, be sure you have the notes for the early settlement of Rome. If you need more room, go onto the back of the page.

What do legends tell us about these Roman kings?

ROMULUS

NUMA POMPILUS

*Abandoned as a baby into the Tiber River
*Raised by a she-wolf
*Adopted by a shepherd
*Killed his twin brother Remus
*Built Rome, named it for himself
*Rome’s second king
*Brought peace to Rome
*Founded the Roman religion (based on Greek gods and goddesses)


What was the government of Rome like under the early kings?
*Kings advised by the Senate
*Kings were elders from Rome’s leading families
*Decisions voted on by citizens’ assembly
*Government and religion closely connected
*King was chief priest (Pontifex Maximus)

How was Roman civilization influenced by the Etruscans?
*Etruscan civilization was more advanced
*Romans adopted Etruscan alphabet, new building techniques like the arch
*Etruscans were builders of temples, arenas, and sewer systems
*Etruscan women had far more rights than other women

Describe the geography of Rome.
*Built on several hills on the Tiber River, which flows into the Mediterranean
*Centered on the Italian peninsula, which sticks out into the Mediterranean
*Close enough to the coast for trade, but inland enough for protection
An early view of Rome as a small village
How was the geography of Rome advantageous in the following areas?

Defense

Trade

*Hills helped to protect Rome from enemy attacks
*15 miles from the sea keeps Rome safe from naval attacks

*Tiber River good for trade within Italy, and connects Rome to the sea
*Central location of Italy in the Mediterranean makes an easy trip to Greece, Spain, Northern Africa