Monday, September 26, 2016

Longer Videos About Antarctica

If you have some time on this rainy weekend to check out some longer videos about Antarctica, here are a few good choices:












Even More Antarctica Resources!

Here are some resources to help you in your research. Remember that you should have in your mind this question: Why do people go to Antarctica?

The High Rock Media Center has several databases that might help you: Check the brochure you received for logins and passwords.

Deception Island's derelict hangar: Its inhabitants fled after a series of volcanic eruptions in the Sixties
This article looks into the abandon research camps and "ghost towns" of Antarctica.
Seven abandoned wonders of Antarctica: The whaling bases, research sites and military installations that have all succumbed to the South Pole's icy weather
By Daily Mail Reporter
Antarctica is hardly the most overpopulated part of the our increasingly crowded planet. Sub-zero temperatures and six-month-long nights have guaranteed that.But there are a few hardy souls who have at least tried to build settlements of some kind there - mainly for scientific, military or nakedly commercial purposes, or course. Unsurprisingly, many of these have, for reasons that are generally obvious to anyone who values their fingers and toes, failed to prosper, leaving the icy continent littered with the remnants of human habitation.Scroll down for videoThe remains of the boilers at the whaling station on Deception Island: It was abandoned in the Great Depression, when oil prices plummetted, making harvesting oil from whales no longer viable
The remains of the boilers at the whaling station on Deception Island: It was abandoned in the Great Depression, when oil prices plummetted, making harvesting oil from whales no longer economically viable
Buried: The British base on Deception Island, which was consumed by a mudslide sparked by a volcanic eruption
Buried: The British base on Deception Island, which was consumed by a mudslide sparked by a volcano
Art and architecture site WebUrbanist has compiled a list of seven these abandoned wonders of Antartica which, it calls, 'some of the world's eeriest ghost towns'.Whale's Bay on Deception Island was first established as a base for shipping by a Norwegian-Chilean whaling company early in the 20th century.It was abandoned in the Great Depression, when oil prices plummeted and made harvesting oil from whales no longer economically viable, sitting empty until the British turned up in 1944 to establish a new shipping base.Its inhabitants fled after a series of volcanic eruptions in the Sixties. Finally a cataclysmic eruption in 1969 sent mud hurtling down onto the base, burying many of the buildings.  
All alone: In 1958 Soviet scientists set up a research station in the southern point of inaccessibility. Today all that is left is a single building almost entirely covered by snow drifts, with a lonely bust of Lenin poking out
All alone: In 1958 Soviet scientists set up a research station in the southern point of inaccessibility. Today all that is left is a single building almost entirely covered by snow drifts, with a lonely bust of Lenin poking out
Remote: In 1939 the U.S. Antarctic Service established its East Base on Stonington Island where, just a few years later, they were joined by a British base just yards away
Remote: In 1939 the U.S. Antarctic Service established its East Base on Stonington Island where, just a few years later, they were joined by a British base just yards away
Shut in 1965: On the island of South Georgia, Leith Harbour, established in 1909, was home to the largest of seven whaling stations built near the mouth of Stromness Bay
Shut in 1965: On the island of South Georgia, Leith Harbour, established in 1909, was home to the largest of seven whaling stations built near the mouth of Stromness Bay
In 1958 Soviet scientists set up a research station in the southern point of inaccessibility, shipping huts, a radio shack and a tiny power station to the spot on the back of tractors.However, the very inaccessibility of the spot - presumably what attracted them there - proved to be the base's Achilles' Heel, with the Communist pioneers lasting a grand total of 12 days before heading back to civilisation.Today all that is left is a single building almost entirely covered by snow drifts, with a lonely bust of Lenin that stood atop it peering out over the desolate ice fields. Established in 1904, the installation at Grytviken Harbour in South Georgia was once a large Norwegian whaling base and home to 300 workers employed in rendering the blubber, meat, bones and viscera of catches into oil.Situated in the most sheltered harbour of South Georgia Island, it soon attracted an Argentine meteorological station as well but, as the surrounding oceans were over-exploited, whale populations plummeted.Nigh impossible navigation: Base W on the protected shore of Detaille Island was set up in 1956 after researchers judged it the perfect setting for such an installation
Nigh impossible navigation: Base W on the protected shore of Detaille Island was set up in 1956 after researchers judged it the perfect setting for such an installation
Deception Island's derelict hangar: Its inhabitants fled after a series of volcanic eruptions in the Sixties
Deception Island's derelict hangar: Its inhabitants fled after a series of volcanic eruptions in the Sixties
By 1966 the station was forced to close, leaving behind little but a rusted jumble of equipment. The island is also home to the gravesite of Ernest Shackleton, the noted polar explorer, who died of a heart attack while his ship was moored nearby.Also on the island of South Georgia, Leith Harbour, established in 1909, was home to the largest of seven whaling stations built near the mouth of Stromness Bay.In an attempt to assuage the loneliness and discomfort of polar life, it included a library, cinema and hospital. It too fell victiom to the decline in whaling, shutting in 1965.In 1939 the U.S. Antarctic Service established its East Base on Stonington Island where, just a few years later, they were joined by a British base just yards away. Icy conditions (which you thought they would have anticipated - it being the South Pole) periodically forced both bases to close until, in 1975, the British had had enough and left for good. Her Majesty's men came back to remove the remnants of their base in the early Nineties, but the U.S. base stands to this day.Grytviken Harbour, Island of South Georgia: It once a large Norwegian whaling base and home to 300 workers, but over-exploitation led to a sharp decline in whale numbers and, by 1966, the station had to close
Grytviken Harbour, Island of South Georgia: It once a large Norwegian whaling base and home to 300 workers, but over-exploitation led to a sharp decline in whale numbers and, by 1966, the station had to close
Attempts to clear a second British base were not so successful. Base W on the protected shore of Detaille Island was set up in 1956 after researchers judged it the perfect setting for such an installation. What they didn't realise was that the year they arrived was unusually mild. In subsequent winters the bay was packed with ice, making navigation nigh impossible. When one relief ship arrived in 1959 with supplies for researchers intending to spend a long winter there, the staff changed their minds, packed up everything they could in an hour, and sailed off.Many of the supplies they had intended to live off remain on the site - including magazines, clothes, rusted tins of food and various personal effects - comprising an eerie time capsule that has sat practically untouched for more than 50 years. When a British team attempted to return to Base W in 2004 to either knock it down or preserve it as a historical site, they were again foiled by the ice.Only the brave - and those well-equipped with thermals... The island of Grytviken is also the gravesite of explorer Ernest Shackleton, who was buried alongside whalers who died there, WebUrbanist reported
Only the brave - and those well-equipped with thermals... The island of Grytviken is also the gravesite of explorer Ernest Shackleton, who was buried alongside whalers who died there, WebUrbanist reported
Even in more recent years, Antarctic explorers have found no answer to ice and the dangers it poses to sailing.Last year, for a brief period, a ghost ship appeared to shimmer iridescent blue beneath the frigid waters of Maxwell Bay in Ardley Cove, Antartica.It was the wreckage of the Mar Sem Fin (Endless Sea), a Brazilian research vessel, which was transporting a documentary team filming in the area when it got stuck in the encroaching ice. With the weather worsening, 40-knot winds whipped up waves several metres high, causing the Mar Sem Fin to list precariously and sparking a rescue mission by the Chilean Navy.The ship was left behind and water from the towering waves froze inside its hull, splitting it and sending it to the bottom of the shallow bay. And there it stayed for about a year, until the owner was able to return and use buoys to refloat it and bring it back to shore.

See the abandoned whaling base in the Antarctic (related)
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National Geographic Antarctica Interactive Map 

Check out this video all about Antarctic tourism:


Story of a Russian ship that got stuck in Antarctic ice a couple years ago

Here's a cool virtual 3D tour of Robert Scott's ship, the RRS Discovery

Race to the South Pole-- An article from the BBC about the historical quest to be the first to reach the South Pole
Robert Scott and crew

Look at this "old-school" video about the race to the South Pole in the early 1900s!




From The Boston Globe comes a story about a marathon in Antarctica-
A marathon in Antarctica, truly a one-of-a-kind vacation

From The Boston Globe

The issue of global climate change/global warming and of melting polar ice has been in the news for  while:




Friday, September 16, 2016

Antarctica Information

Our next class project will involve a mini research essay on the frozen continent of Antarctica. We will take information from several sources to understand why people travel to such a harsh place.

 Read this brief introductory article to start off:
KidInfoBits: Antarctica

Here's a great website for exploring Antarctica more in detail:
Polar Discovery from the Woods Hole Institute

And here's another great website for exploring information about Antarctica from the National Science Foundation:
NSF in the Antarctica

And of course, there needs to be a video from Tim and Moby of BrainPop!
BrainPop: South Pole

Check out this website of the Secretariat of the Antarctic Treaty, the organization that helps make sure Antarctica is kept safe and peaceful for scientific research:
ATS - Secretariat of the Antarctic Treaty

Time For Kids has a great site about Antarctica that includes articles, pictures, news stories, and videos to explore:
Time For Kids: Antarctica

Here's a few interesting videos about Antarctica and the Southern Ocean from National Geographic:



This video from National Geographic may not play on an iPad--Try your desktop computer.


Here is a brief summary of the Antarctic Treaty signed in 1959


Here's a video called "Destination Antarctica


This is a great show called Race to the South Pole, about Roald Amundsen and Robert Scott both trying to be the first explorers to reach the South Pole in 1912.


Here's a travel video focusing on the sights of Antarctica


And here's a video tour of the South Pole research station!


And just for fun, here's a preview of the PBS show about penguins and the robot camera in a penguin/furbie suit
Here's a cool article from the BBC about a scientist that is using a hot water drill to look for life in a lake that is more than 3km UNDER the ice.

Antarctic lake mission targets life and climate signs
 By Richard Black Environment correspondent, BBC News

Weather at the site can be stormy, requiring protection for people and gear

Related Stories
    •    Map tracks Antarctica on the move
    •    Ice loss quickens, raising seas
    •    Clue to ancient Antarctic seaway

A pioneering British expedition to sample a lake under the Antarctic ice hopes to find unknown forms of life and clues to future climate impacts.

The mission will use hot water to melt its way through ice 3km (2 miles) thick to reach Lake Ellsworth, which has been isolated from the outside world for at least 125,000 years - maybe a million.

The team hopes to be the first to sample a sub-glacial Antarctic lake.
An engineering team leaves the UK later this week along with 70 tonnes of gear.

The project, funded to the tune of £7m by the UK's Natural Environment Research Council, aims to obtain samples of the lake water itself and of sediment on the lake floor.

 The heavy equipment has to be airlifted in to Antarctica, followed by a long trek over land

"Our project will look for life in Lake Ellsworth, and look for the climate record of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet," said the project's principal investigator Professor Martin Siegert from Edinburgh University.

"If we're successful, we'll make profound discoveries on both the limits to life on Earth and the history of West Antarctica," he told BBC News.

Understanding the West Antarctic Ice Sheet is crucial to forecasting future climate change impacts, as it holds enough ice to raise sea levels globally by at least 3m (10ft) and perhaps 7m (23ft).

Exploring sub-glacial lakes may also help scientists design missions to search for life on other worlds such as Jupiter's moon Europa, which is thought to feature a liquid ocean beneath a thick layer of ice.

Click here to read the rest of the article.

1. A hot water drill will melt through the frozen ice sheet, which is up to 3km (2 miles) thick. After drilling, they will have an estimated 24 hours to collect samples before the borehole re-freezes

2. A probe will be lowered through the borehole to capture water samples

3. A specialised corer will then recover sediment from the floor of the lake through the same borehole

Source: Subglacial Lake Ellsworth Consortium

Monday, September 12, 2016

Geography Vocabulary Words

In class we wrote down the definitions of our Geography Unit vocabulary terms.


Geography Unit Vocabulary

1. GEOGRAPHY
Geography is the study of the earth, including:

  • Landforms
  • Climate
  • Natural resources
  • People
  • Countries
  • Locations

2. CARTOGRAPHER
A cartographer is a person who makes maps

3. MAP
A map is a picture of an area of the earth printed on a flat surface


4. GLOBE
A globe is a sphere that has a map of the earth on it. A globe is more accurate than a world map because it is the same shape as our planet


5. HEMISPHERE
A hemisphere is a half of the earth
The equator separates the Northern and Southern Hemispheres.
The Prime Meridian separates the Eastern and Western Hemispheres


6. MAP SCALE
A map scale shows what distances on the map actually equal in real life


7. LATITUDE LINES
Latitude lines measure how far NORTH or SOUTH a place is


8. LONGITUDE LINES
Longitude lines measure how far EAST or WEST a place is


9. EQUATOR
The equator is the imaginary latitude line around the center of the earth.
The equator divides the earth into Northern and Southern hemispheres


10. PRIME MERIDIAN
The Prime Meridian is the longitude line that divides the earth into Eastern and Western Hemispheres


11. NORTH POLE
The North Pole is the northernmost point on earth, located at 90° North


12. SOUTH POLE
The South Pole is southernmost point on earth, located at 90° South


13. POLAR REGIONS
The polar regions are the cold areas around the North and South Poles


14. TROPICAL REGIONS
The tropical regions are the hot and humid areas of earth in around the equator


15. CONTINENT
A continent is one of the seven largest land areas on earth


16. OCEAN
An ocean is one of the five largest bodies of water on earth

Create Your State Map Project

You will become a cartographer for the next couple of days. Your job is to imagine a new state and create a map of the place. As always, you are expected to do your best work and follow the directions. Please see Mr. Guerriero if you have any questions at all, if you want some help, or if you want to see the examples of finished maps!

Check the student Atlas or the box of National Geographic maps in the classroom for inspiration and ideas of what to put on your map. Remember, the goal is to SHOW WHAT YOU KNOW about how maps give information, not just to make it look pretty!


The map must include the following required items. (Each item is worth 2 points)
  • Map Key (Legend)
  • Colors or Shading using colored pencils
  • Map Scale with metric measurements
  • Compass Rose
  • Symbols
  • Grid Lines (drawn or folded)
  • Title (name of your state)
  • Labels of at least 10 places (city, mountain, river, etc.)
  • Capital City
Challenge: Your map must include 2 items from this list. (Each item is worth one point. You may put more than 2 of these.)
  • Chart (population density, etc.)
  • Relief lines (showing elevation, or how high or low the land is)
  • Inset map (a smaller map set into the larger one)
  • Graphics
  • Border Lines
  • Captions
  • Heights/Depths
  • Other: _________________________
Neatness and professionalism are important as well.
(Each item is worth 1 point)
  • Student’s name and block are on the back
  • Student completes a rough draft first
  • All lines are drawn using a ruler
  • Coloring is neat and carefully done
  • Labels are neatly written and spelled correctly
  • Map is handed in by Friday, September 16th.

Total Score: _______/ 26


In class, we used J. R. R. Tolkein's maps of the Lord of the Rings series for inspiration of how to map imaginary places. Here is our art teacher, Mrs. Krantz's, slideshow of some mapmaking techniques. Check out the links at the end as well.

Mrs. Krantz's Map Inspiration Slide Show

Check out this aweseme interactive map from The Hobbit's world of Middle Earth:
http://lotrproject.com/map/

Also, here is a CHEEZ-TASTIC explanation of how highway maps were made back in the 1940s. How has map making changed since then?

 

Here is an interesting interview with an artist who redrew the maps for the Lord of the Rings series:

Thursday, September 8, 2016

Latitude and Longitude Skills

This week in Social Studies class, we're looking at using lines of latitude and longitude to find locations on earth. Using a map to find locations, there are a few points to keep in mind:

LATITUDE lines are HORIZONTAL and measure how far NORTH or SOUTH a place is.

Latitude lines are also called parallels.

LONGITUDE lines are VERTICAL and measure how far EAST or WEST a place is.

Longitude lines are also called meridians.

When you write the coordinates of a specific place the latitude number goes first, followed by the longitude number.

Latitude and longitude points are measured in degrees. This is because our earth is round and there are 360 degrees in a circle!

If you were trying to locate the city of Boston, you would say that it lies at (42°N, 71°W). This means that Boston is 42 degrees north of the equator, and 71 degrees west of the Prime Meridian.

Tim and Moby explain latitude and longitude in a video on BrainPop--Check it out by clicking here. If you don't remember the Needham login and password, ask me during class.




Here's a CHEEZ-TASTIC video from the 1970s!