Tuesday, November 30, 2010

Ice Man Information

To help you in your research, here are the notes and evidence about Ice Man that we used in class.

Iceman’s Remains

Missing his hair, fingernails and toenails, and an outer layer of skin, the Iceman is otherwise perfectly preserved (mummified). The one surviving fingernail recovered from his remains suggests that he suffered three episodes of significant disease during the last six months of life. His last meal included venison and bread. He was about 46 years old, five feet two (1.6 meters), 110 pounds (50 kilograms), and infested with whipworm. A sharpened piece of stone, probably flint, had made a half-inch gash in the Iceman's left subclavian artery—a gash in this artery can be deadly. Through C-14 dating they determined that Iceman died 5,300 years ago. They also know he had 57 tattoos at acupuncture points on his back, right knee, calves, and ankles.

Iceman’s Copper Axe

The handle was made of a very strong wood.  The blade was made of copper that had been melted and poured into a mold.  There was “wheat sheen” on the blade.  They originally thought the axe was from 4,000 years ago (the Copper Age) but it’s actually 5,300 years old.

Iceman’s Quiver

The quiver was made from deer fur.  The quiver’s strap and supporting strut were broken.  The bow that he carried was not finished.  The quiver contained 12 arrows, only 2 of them finished.  The finished arrows had flint arrowheads, wooden shafts, and feathers of a large brownish bird.  The feathers were attached by birch tar and long strings of sheep’s wool.  

Iceman’s Belt and Pouch
The Iceman’s belt was made from a 4- to 5 cm-wide strip of calf’s leather. A dagger was found on the belt with a handle of ash wood and a blade of flint, the Iceman's dagger measures five inches (13 centimeters) from top to bottom.
In the pouch were several items, including 2 fungus balls on straps, 3 different sized pieces of flint, and a pencil-like splinter made from goat or sheep bone.  There were also a couple of sloe berries in the pouch which grow from a bush that is found below the mountains, and are ready to eat after the first frost. 

Iceman’s Clothing
Iceman’s coat was made of the hide of a domestic goat. The hemispherical bearskin cap was found near Iceman’s head.  Like nearly all the clothing items, it was made of several hide strips stitched together. The cap, which was worn with the fur side out, was extremely well preserved. The shoes consist of an inner and outer part.  The inner shoe is composed of grass netting. Its purpose was to hold hay in place, which served as insulation material. The outer part is made of deerskin. Both parts – the grass netting and the leather upper – are fastened to an oval-shaped sole made of bearskin by means of leather straps.

Thanks to Mrs. Liner for typing these up and adding the pictures!


  1. Thanks mr.G super helpful From Ethan

  2. I learned that the Ice man was in bad shape while he was living. He has a gash from flint, was infested with wipworm and has 57 tattoos at acupuncture points.


  3. hi mr.guerriero I think the blog is really useful. Anyways ice man is super cool to learn about. I when we first talked about him i couldnt stop telling my mom all that information about him. My favorite thing that i have learned about is that ice man got 57 tattoos. to me he is a really brave man i cant belive how he did that,he is a really brave person cause if that was me i think I would scream like bloody murder i really cant do that. Also all those cool tools that he had were preety amazing and i thought that the close that he has was cool. But in a way i felt bad because of when he got frost bite. it must really stink to have these kind of clothes that you can get really cold in. so thank you Mr. guerriero for making this site for us students and thank you for making us students so smart. From Gabby Nunes

  4. what is a fungus ball?
    is it just a ball of fungus?????
    P.S. Thankyou for typing this information up Mrs. Liner , super helpful!

  5. mr.guerriero is the best teacher ever!

    james concannon

  6. thank you so much this was a GREAT homework helper!!! :)



  8. I really appreciate all the time and effort that it took to make this blog. Your the best!

  9. thank you. very helpful info:) keep up the great blogging:)

  10. ELizabeth HernbergDecember 5, 2010 at 8:24 PM

    Thanks for the info
    Elizabeth Hernberg!!