Missing his hair, fingernails and toenails, and an outer layer of skin, the Iceman is otherwise perfectly preserved (mummified). The one surviving fingernail recovered from his remains suggests that he suffered three episodes of significant disease during the last six months of life. His last meal included venison and bread. He was about 46 years old, five feet two (1.6 meters), 110 pounds (50 kilograms), and infested with whipworm. A sharpened piece of stone, probably flint, had made a half-inch gash in the Iceman's left subclavian artery—a gash in this artery can be deadly. Through C-14 dating they determined that Iceman died 5,300 years ago. They also know he had 57 tattoos at acupuncture points on his back, right knee, calves, and ankles.
The handle was made of a very strong wood. The blade was made of copper that had been melted and poured into a mold. There was “wheat sheen” on the blade. They originally thought the axe was from 4,000 years ago (the Copper Age) but it’s actually 5,300 years old.
Iceman’s QuiverThe quiver was made from deer fur. The quiver’s strap and supporting strut were broken. The bow that he carried was not finished. The quiver contained 12 arrows, only 2 of them finished. The finished arrows had flint arrowheads, wooden shafts, and feathers of a large brownish bird. The feathers were attached by birch tar and long strings of sheep’s wool.
Iceman’s Belt and Pouch
The Iceman’s belt was made from a 4- to 5 cm-wide strip of calf’s leather. A dagger was found on the belt with a handle of ash wood and a blade of flint, the Iceman's dagger measures five inches (13 centimeters) from top to bottom.
In the pouch were several items, including 2 fungus balls on straps, 3 different sized pieces of flint, and a pencil-like splinter made from goat or sheep bone. There were also a couple of sloe berries in the pouch which grow from a bush that is found below the mountains, and are ready to eat after the first frost.
Iceman’s coat was made of the hide of a domestic goat. The hemispherical bearskin cap was found near Iceman’s head. Like nearly all the clothing items, it was made of several hide strips stitched together. The cap, which was worn with the fur side out, was extremely well preserved. The shoes consist of an inner and outer part. The inner shoe is composed of grass netting. Its purpose was to hold hay in place, which served as insulation material. The outer part is made of deerskin. Both parts – the grass netting and the leather upper – are fastened to an oval-shaped sole made of bearskin by means of leather straps.
Thanks to Mrs. Liner for typing these up and adding the pictures!