Friday, March 8, 2013

Egypt Unit Test Study Guide

Remember that the test will be Thursday, March 14th

EGYPT UNIT TEST
I.    EGYPT - GEOGRAPHY
      A.    GIFTS OF THE NILE
            1.    FOOD: Source of fish, water birds
            2.    Water for IRRIGATION, drinking and washing, and also for trade and travel
            3.    PAPYRUS for making paper, baskets, sandals
            4.    MUD for growing a surplus of crops, and making mud bricks
            5.    FLAX for linen--used for clothes and mummy wrappings
      B.    IMPORTANT PLACE NAMES
            1.    RED SEA
            2.    MEDITERRANEAN SEA
            3.    GIZA (pyramids + Sphinx)
            4.    Memphis
            5.    Thebes (VALLEY OF THE KINGS)
            6.    Nubia
            7.    Nile River

II.    SOCIAL PYRAMID
      A.    Pharaoh
            1.    Royal Family
            2.    Nobles and Priests
            3.    Government Officials and Scribes
            4.    Artisans (musicians, jewelers, potters, merchants)
            5.    FARMERS
            6.    Slaves

III.    HIEROGLYPHICS
      A.    Egyptian system of writing
      B.    Rosetta Stone helped archaeologists translate
      C.    Cartouche - an oval with a pharaoh's name inside
IV.    MAKING MUMMIES
      A.    WHY
            1.    Preserve the body for the AFTERLIFE
            2.    Give the soul a place to reside
      B.    HOW
            1.    Wash the body and say special prayers
            2.    Remove Organs (except HEART), throw away brain
            3.    Put LUNGS, STOMACH, INTESTINES, and LIVER into canopic jars
            4.    Pack body in NATRON to dry it out (40 days)
            5.    Stuff insides and cover in sticky resin (tree sap)
            6.    Wrap body in linen strips
            7.    Priests place jewelry and amulets in the wrappings

V.    PYRAMIDS AND SPHINX
      A.    Pyramids
            1.    Large stone tombs with sloping sides and square base
            2.    GREAT Pyramids at Giza are most famous
            3.    BUILT to give FARMERS jobs during the FLOOD SEASON
      B.    Sphinx
            1.    Mythical creature with Pharaoh head and Lion’s body
            2.    Great Sphinx at Giza guards the Great Pyramids

VI.    AFTERLIFE
      A.    Religious belief in life after death
      B.    Supposed to be better than this life
      C.    Religious Trial
            1.    Anubis weighs the heart against the "feather of truth"
                  a.    If you're good--nice afterlife
                  b.    If you're bad--crocodile monster eats heart
      D.    Deities (gods)
            1.    Osiris - KING of the Underworld
            2.    Isis - Osiris' wife, queen of the gods
            3.    Anubis - jackal-headed god of the dead (weighs heart)
            4.    Amon Ra - Sun god and most important
            5.    Horus - Son of Osiris, falcon-headed god of pharaohs

VII.    EGYPTIAN ART
      A.    Egyptians love ORDER in their art
            1.    Bodies are in unrealistic poses - look better
            2.    SIZE of a person shows their importance
            3.    Art is organized into REGISTERS, or levels
            4.    Many symbols:
                  a.    EYE OF HORUS (healing)
                  b.    ANKH (life)
                  c.    SCARAB BEETLE (rebirth)
                  d.    LOTUS FLOWER (good luck)
            5.    Art had a religious purpose - show their beliefs
                  a.    Anubis weighing the heart
                  b.    Tomb paintings - daily life
                  c.    Show the gods and goddesses

VIII.    NEW KINGDOM
      A.    RAMSES II (THE GREAT)
            1.    Had between 100 and 200 children
            2.    Lived to his 90s, most powerful pharaoh EVER
            3.    Built Egypt into a huge empire
      B.    HATSHEPSUT
            1.    Female ruler--unusual for Egypt
            2.    Wanted to improve the lives of Egyptians
            3.    She didn't worry too much about conquering
            4.    Led important trade expeditions
            5.    Ruled in place of her nephew/stepson
      C.    THUTMOSE III
            1.    Hatshepsut's nephew
            2.    Very interested in conquering other lands
            3.    Only regained the throne when Hatshepsut died
            4.    Erased all signs of Hatshepsut
            5.    Not so concerned with improving Egyptians' lives
            6.    Extended Egypt's borders greatly
      D.    AKHENATEN
            1.    Possibly insane
            2.    Told people to worship the sunSHINE, not the SUN!
            3.    After he died, the religion went back to normal
      E.    KING TUTANKHAMEN
            1.    His Life
                  a.    Pharaoh at 9, died at 19
                  b.    Not an important pharaoh, like his father Akhenaten
                  c.    Died from a broken leg and other diseases
            2.    His Tomb
                  a.    The REASON he is so well known is that it was UNROBBED
                  b.    Paintings and artifacts can tell us about religious beliefs
                  c.    His death mask is one of the MOST well-known Egyptian artifacts
                  d.    Found in 1922 by Howard Carter

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