Greece and Rome: Cultural Diffusion

Cultural diffusion means the spreading of ideas from one culture to another.

Keep notes on the following information concerning the influence Greek culture had on the Romans.

How did the Greeks influence Roman culture in the following areas?

Zeus became Jupiter Optimus Maximus (Jupiter the Highest and Best)
- The Romans worshipped Greek gods but gave them new names
- Examples: Zeus = Jupiter, Aphrodite = Venus

- Roman writers were inspired by Greek writers
- Virgil wrote the Aeneid, an epic poem about the end of the Trojan War and the hero Aeneas
- Virgil based the Aeneid on the Iliad and the Odyssey

- Romans adopted Greek forms such as temples with columns, pediment, and a rectangular floor plan
- The Romans also used the arch, which they learned from the Etruscans

- Wealthy Romans study Greek literature
- Romans often hired Greek teachers and tutors
- Greek was the language spoken by the upper class

How did the following practical skills of the Romans advance their society?

- Legal system of courts, judges, and lawyers spread around the Mediterranean area
- The Roman system influences the laws of many modern European countries

- Developed surveying and engineering skills to build an entire highway system
- Connected all parts of the Roman territory
- Used roads for trade and army movement
- Perfected the use of the arch, and invented waterproof concrete

- The Roman army was determined and disciplined
- Roman soldiers were experienced and professional
- The army was organized to have long campaigns
- Specially trained troops for desert, mountain, and naval battles

Ancient Greek and Roman art: From the Utah System of Higher Education (with special thanks to Dr. Nancy Ross). Video by Ydraw.

Copy down this list of Greek gods and their Roman names:

Greek Name                Roman Name
Zeus                             Jupiter/Jove
Hera                             Juno
Ares                             Mars
Apollo                          Apollo
Artemis                       Diana
Aphrodite                   Venus
Kronos                        Saturn
Demeter                      Ceres
Hades                          Pluto
Persephone                 Proserpina
Hermes                       Mercury
Poseidon                     Neptune
Hephaestus                Vulcan
Hestia                         Vesta
Dionysus                    Bacchus
Athena                       Minerva